How to Become an Oncologist in India

How to Become an Oncologist in India

Choosing a career in oncology can be a profoundly rewarding decision, paving the way for aspiring doctors to make a significant impact in the battle against cancer.

Oncology, the branch of medicine dedicated to diagnosing, treating, and researching cancer, offers a multitude of pathways for specialization, including medical, surgical, and radiation oncology.

In India, where the incidence of cancer is on the rise, the demand for skilled oncologists has never been higher.

“How to Become an Oncologist in India” is a guide aimed at providing aspiring medical professionals with a clear roadmap to entering this vital field.

It outlines the essential educational qualifications, skills, and steps required to pursue a successful career in oncology.

This guide serves as a beacon for those who wish to dedicate their careers to cancer care, research, and patient support, ensuring they are well-informed and prepared for the challenges and rewards that lie ahead in this noble profession.

What is Oncology?

Oncology is the medical specialty focused on diagnosing, treating, and researching cancer.

It encompasses the study of tumor biology, cancer prevention, and the development of innovative therapies to combat the disease. 

Oncologists are medical professionals dedicated to managing cancer care, from initial diagnosis to palliative care.

This field divides into sub-specialties like Medical, Surgical, and Radiation Oncology, each addressing different aspects of cancer treatment.

Oncology plays a crucial role in advancing our understanding and treatment of cancer, aiming to improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Why Choose a Career in Oncology?

Oncology is about fighting cancer. It's a field where doctors diagnose, treat, and research cancer to help patients. Choosing oncology means you'll have a big impact, helping people through tough times and working on breakthroughs in treatment. With cancer cases rising, oncologists are in demand, making it a rewarding career for those who want to make a difference in healthcare.

Eligibility Criteria

Pursuing a career as an oncologist in India requires a specific set of educational milestones and qualifications.

Here’s a detailed look at the eligibility criteria for those aiming to specialize in oncology:

Step 1: Complete Higher Secondary Education

  • Qualification: Students must complete their 10+2 education with Physics, Chemistry, Biology/Biotechnology, and English as core subjects.
  • Minimum Marks: A minimum aggregate score of 50% (40% for reserved categories) in the PCB group is typically required.
  • Entrance Exams: Qualifying in national or state-level entrance exams like NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) is mandatory for MBBS admissions.

Step 2: Earn a Bachelor’s Degree in Medicine (MBBS)

  • Duration: The MBBS program spans 5.5 years, including a one-year mandatory internship.
  • Curriculum: The course covers basic medical sciences and clinical skills, providing a foundation for medical practice.

Step 3: Postgraduate Specialization

  • Qualification: After completing MBBS, aspirants must pursue a postgraduate degree in oncology or related fields. This could be an MD (Doctor of Medicine) in General Medicine followed by a DM (Doctorate of Medicine) in Medical Oncology, or an MS (Master of Surgery) in General Surgery followed by MCh (Magister Chirurgiae) in Surgical Oncology.
  • Entrance Exams: Entrance to postgraduate programs requires clearing exams like NEET-PG or the institute-specific entrance tests.

Step 4: Super Specialization (Optional)

  • Aspiring oncologists can opt for further specialization in areas such as Pediatric Oncology, Gynecologic Oncology, etc., through fellowship programs. Admission into these programs may require additional exams and depend on the candidate’s postgraduate qualifications.


  • Medical Registration: Upon completing the MBBS degree, graduates must register with the Medical Council of India (MCI) or the State Medical Council to practice legally as a doctor in India.
  • Specialist Registration: After completing postgraduate studies in oncology, further registration with MCI as a specialist oncologist is required.

Continuous Medical Education

  • Oncologists must engage in continuous medical education and stay updated with the latest advancements in cancer treatment and research. This includes attending workshops, seminars, and conferences.

Meeting these eligibility criteria sets the foundation for a career in oncology, leading to a challenging yet rewarding path where doctors can make significant contributions to cancer care and research.

Top Colleges for Oncology in India

For those aspiring to become oncologists in India, selecting the right institution for your medical and specialized oncology training is crucial.

The country is home to several prestigious medical colleges that offer comprehensive programs in oncology, providing students with the knowledge, skills, and clinical exposure necessary to excel in this challenging field.

Here’s a detailed overview of some top colleges for oncology in India:

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi

  • Overview: AIIMS New Delhi is renowned for its excellence in medical education, research, and patient care. It offers advanced training in various oncology specialties, including medical, surgical, and radiation oncology.
  • Programs Offered: MD in Radiation Oncology, MCh in Surgical Oncology, DM in Medical Oncology, and fellowship programs in subspecialties like Pediatric Oncology.
  • Facilities: State-of-the-art laboratories, modern cancer treatment equipment, and a dedicated cancer research center.

Tata Memorial Centre (TMC), Mumbai

  • Overview: TMC is a leader in cancer research and treatment in India. It specializes in comprehensive cancer care, and its academic wing, the Homi Bhabha National Institute, offers super-specialty training in oncology.
  • Programs Offered: MCh in Surgical Oncology, DM in Medical Oncology, MD in Pathology with a focus on oncopathology, and various fellowship programs in oncology subspecialties.
  • Facilities: Advanced treatment technologies, a vast library of cancer research, and collaborations with international cancer research centers.

Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore

  • Overview: CMC Vellore is known for its high standard of medical education and patient care. The college offers specialized postgraduate courses in oncology with an emphasis on research and clinical practice.
  • Programs Offered: MD in Radiation Oncology, MCh in Surgical Oncology, and fellowship programs in areas like Pediatric Oncology and Gynecologic Oncology.
  • Facilities: Comprehensive cancer center, modern radiation therapy units, and active involvement in clinical trials.

National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR), Noida

  • Overview: NICPR focuses on cancer prevention and research. It provides education and training in oncology, with an emphasis on epidemiology and cancer prevention strategies.
  • Programs Offered: Fellowship programs and PhD opportunities in cancer prevention and research.
  • Facilities: Laboratories equipped for cancer research, a repository of cancer data, and collaborations for community-based cancer prevention projects.

Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore

  • Overview: Kidwai is one of the leading cancer care and research institutes in India. It offers specialized training in oncology, focusing on comprehensive cancer treatment and research.
  • Programs Offered: MD in Radiation Oncology, MCh in Surgical Oncology, and fellowship programs in various oncology specialties.
  • Facilities: A dedicated cancer research center, modern treatment facilities, and a rich environment for clinical and translational research in oncology.

Selection Criteria

When choosing a college for oncology studies, consider factors like the curriculum, faculty expertise, research opportunities, hospital affiliations for clinical training, and the success rate of alumni.

Additionally, look for institutions that offer hands-on training and exposure to cutting-edge cancer treatments and technologies.

These top colleges for oncology in India not only provide a strong academic foundation but also ensure that students gain the practical experience and research skills needed for a successful career in oncology.

Skills Required to Become an Oncologist

To excel in the field of oncology in India, aspiring oncologists must cultivate a specific set of skills that go beyond medical knowledge.

These skills are critical for diagnosing, treating, and managing cancer patients effectively, as well as conducting research to advance the field.

Here’s a detailed look at the essential skills required to become a successful oncologist:

Clinical Skills and Medical Knowledge

  • Foundational Medical Knowledge: A deep understanding of the human body, diseases, and specifically, cancer biology is crucial. Oncologists must stay updated with the latest research and treatment modalities in cancer care.
  • Diagnostic Skills: Ability to interpret medical tests and imaging results accurately to diagnose different types of cancers.
  • Treatment Planning: Skills in developing and managing comprehensive treatment plans that may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other modalities.

Technical Proficiency

  • Surgical Skills (for Surgical Oncologists): Precision in performing surgeries to remove tumors and surrounding affected tissues.
  • Radiation Planning (for Radiation Oncologists): Expertise in planning and delivering radiation therapy, ensuring minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissues.
  • Chemotherapy Administration (for Medical Oncologists): Knowledge of chemotherapy drugs, dosages, and administration protocols.

Research Skills

  • Analytical Skills: Ability to analyze clinical data and research findings to apply them in clinical practice or guide further research.
  • Innovation: Keeping abreast of and contributing to advancements in cancer treatment, including new drugs, therapies, and technologies.

Communication and Interpersonal Skills

  • Empathy and Compassion: Understanding and addressing the emotional and psychological needs of cancer patients and their families.
  • Clear Communication: Ability to explain complex medical information in simple terms to patients and ensuring they understand their treatment options and prognosis.
  • Team Collaboration: Working effectively with a multidisciplinary team, including nurses, other specialists, and healthcare professionals, to provide comprehensive care.

Problem-solving and Decision-making

  • Critical Thinking: Evaluating treatment options, potential side effects, and making informed decisions that best suit the patient’s condition and preferences.
  • Adaptability: Being flexible and able to adjust treatment plans as needed based on patient response and emerging research.

Emotional Resilience and Stress Management

  • Coping Mechanisms: Dealing with the emotional toll of treating seriously ill patients, managing stress, and avoiding burnout.
  • Professionalism: Maintaining ethical standards and patient confidentiality, and showing respect to patients, families, and colleagues.

Developing these skills requires rigorous education and training, but they are essential for providing high-quality care, advancing the field of oncology, and making a meaningful difference in the lives of cancer patients.

Oncologists must be lifelong learners, continually updating their skills and knowledge to keep pace with the rapid advancements in cancer treatment.

Career Prospects and Specializations

The field of oncology in India offers a wide range of career prospects and specializations for medical professionals dedicated to cancer care.

The increasing prevalence of cancer across the country has led to a growing demand for oncologists in various healthcare settings, including hospitals, research institutes, and specialty cancer centers.

Here’s a detailed exploration of the career prospects and specializations within oncology:

Career Prospects

  1. Hospital-Based Oncologists: Many oncologists work in the oncology departments of hospitals, where they are involved in diagnosing and treating cancer patients. This setting offers opportunities to work on a wide variety of cases and often involves collaboration with a multidisciplinary team.
  2. Academic and Research Positions: Oncologists with a strong interest in research may pursue careers in academic medicine, working in medical schools or cancer research institutes. These positions typically involve teaching, conducting research, and supervising students and residents.
  3. Private Practice: Some oncologists choose to work in private practice, either alone or as part of a group of specialists. This path allows for more autonomy in patient care and business aspects of the practice.
  4. Pharmaceutical Industry: Oncologists may work in the pharmaceutical sector, contributing to the development, testing, and marketing of new cancer drugs and therapies.
  5. Public Health and Policy: A career in public health or health policy is an option for oncologists interested in cancer prevention, screening programs, and policy development to improve cancer care delivery.

Specializations within Oncology

  1. Medical Oncology: Medical oncologists specialize in treating cancer using chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy, and other targeted treatments. They play a central role in the cancer care team, coordinating treatment plans and managing side effects.
  2. Surgical Oncology: Surgical oncologists focus on removing tumors and surrounding tissues through surgery. They are trained in a variety of surgical techniques, including minimally invasive and robotic surgery, tailored to the type and stage of cancer.
  3. Radiation Oncology: Radiation oncologists specialize in treating cancer with radiation therapy, using high-energy radiation to destroy cancer cells or inhibit their growth. They work closely with medical physicists and radiation therapists to plan and deliver treatment.
  4. Pediatric Oncology: Pediatric oncologists treat cancers in children, combining expertise in oncology with an understanding of how cancer treatment impacts developing bodies and minds.
  5. Gynecologic Oncology: This specialization focuses on treating cancers of the female reproductive system, including ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancers. Gynecologic oncologists are trained in both surgery and chemotherapy for treating these cancers.
  6. Hematology-Oncology: Specialists in this area focus on cancers of the blood, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma, as well as other blood disorders. Treatment may involve chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Oncologist Salary in India

The salary of an oncologist in India can vary widely depending on several factors including the level of specialization, the type of institution they work for (government vs. private), geographical location, years of experience, and the individual’s reputation and skill set.

Entry-Level Oncologists

  • Initial Years: After completing their education and training, oncologists start their careers in entry-level positions. In government hospitals, the starting salary can range from INR 50,000 to INR 1,00,000 per month. In private hospitals, the starting salary might be slightly higher, depending on the hospital’s location and prestige.
  • Residency and Fellowship: During residency and fellowship programs, stipends are provided which vary significantly across institutions but generally range from INR 35,000 to INR 75,000 per month.

Mid-Level Oncologists

  • Years of Experience: With 5 to 10 years of experience, oncologists can expect a significant increase in their earnings. The salary range for mid-level oncologists in private sector can range from INR 1,20,000 to INR 2,50,000 per month, while those in senior positions at government hospitals can also see their salaries approaching this range.
  • Private Practice: Oncologists who open their own practice or join a private clinic can see varied earnings, often significantly higher, depending on the volume of patients, the fees charged, and the efficiency of the practice.

Senior-Level Oncologists

  • Seniority and Specialization: Oncologists with over 10 years of experience, especially those with sub-specializations (such as surgical oncology, medical oncology, or pediatric oncology), can command salaries ranging from INR 3,00,000 to over INR 10,00,000 per month. Senior oncologists with a strong reputation can earn even more, particularly in the private sector.
  • Consultancy and Panel Positions: Senior oncologists often work as consultants or are part of panels across multiple hospitals, which further enhances their income potential.

Influencing Factors

  1. Type of Employer: Private sector jobs typically offer higher salaries compared to government sector jobs. However, government jobs come with additional benefits like job security, pensions, and other perks.
  2. Geographical Location: Salaries can be higher in metropolitan cities due to the higher cost of living and the greater demand for specialized medical services.
  3. Sub-specialization: Oncologists with sub-specializations or those who are super-specialized in areas like pediatric oncology or gynecologic oncology may command higher salaries due to the niche expertise they offer.
  4. Reputation and Skill: Highly skilled oncologists and those with a strong reputation, based on their success rates, research contributions, and patient feedback, can negotiate higher salaries.
  5. Additional Income: Beyond their regular salaries, oncologists can increase their income through private consultations, research grants, teaching assignments, and participation in panels and conferences.

Challenges and Rewards

The career of an oncologist in India, like anywhere in the world, is filled with both challenges and rewards.

Understanding these aspects can help aspiring oncologists prepare for what lies ahead in their professional journey.

Here’s a detailed exploration of the challenges and rewards associated with this noble profession.


  1. Emotional Toll: Oncologists often form close relationships with patients undergoing cancer treatment, many of whom may not survive. Managing the emotional stress associated with patient loss and providing support to grieving families can be challenging.
  2. Long and Irregular Hours: The nature of oncology demands long and sometimes unpredictable hours, especially for those working in hospital settings. Oncologists must be prepared for emergency situations that require their immediate attention, regardless of the time of day.
  3. Keeping Up with Rapid Advancements: The field of oncology is rapidly evolving, with new treatments and research findings emerging regularly. Staying updated requires continuous learning and adaptability, which can be time-consuming.
  4. High Levels of Responsibility: Oncologists make critical decisions regarding patient care plans, often involving complex treatments with significant side effects. The responsibility of making such decisions can be daunting.
  5. Burnout: The combination of emotional strain, high workloads, and the pressure of making life-altering decisions can lead to burnout among oncologists.


  1. Saving Lives and Improving Quality of Life: Perhaps the most significant reward is the ability to save lives or extend life expectancy through effective treatment. Even when a cure isn’t possible, oncologists can significantly improve a patient’s quality of life.
  2. Advancements in Cancer Treatment: Oncologists are at the forefront of applying the latest research and innovative treatments to care for their patients. Being part of a patient’s recovery and seeing the direct impact of new treatments is incredibly rewarding.
  3. Professional Respect: Oncologists are highly respected in the medical community for their expertise and the challenging nature of their work. This respect extends beyond professional circles, recognizing the compassion and dedication required to work in this field.
  4. Intellectual Stimulation: The complexity of cancer and the ongoing developments in treatment provide a continuously stimulating environment, appealing to those who enjoy solving complex problems and learning.
  5. Opportunities for Research and Teaching: Oncologists have unique opportunities to contribute to medical research, advancing the understanding and treatment of cancer. Many also find fulfillment in teaching the next generation of medical professionals.
  6. Financial Compensation: While financial rewards may not be the primary motivation for entering the field, oncologists in India can earn a substantial income, especially as they gain experience and establish their reputation.

Choosing a career in oncology involves navigating both its challenges and rewards.

While the path may be demanding, the opportunity to make a significant difference in the lives of cancer patients and their families, contribute to medical advancements, and earn professional respect makes it a deeply fulfilling career choice for many.

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FAQs: How to Become an Oncologist in India

1. How Long Does It Take to Become an Oncologist in India?

To become an oncologist in India, one must first complete a 5.5-year MBBS degree (including a one-year internship), followed by a 3-year MD (Doctor of Medicine) or MS (Master of Surgery) program. Those aspiring to further specialize in oncology may then need to complete a 3-year DM (Doctorate of Medicine) in Medical Oncology or a 3-year MCh (Magister Chirurgiae) in Surgical Oncology. Therefore, the entire process can take approximately 11.5 to 14.5 years of education and training after high school.

2. Do You Need a Fellowship for Oncology?

While a fellowship is not mandatory to practice as an oncologist, it is highly recommended for those seeking to specialize further in a specific area of oncology, such as pediatric oncology, gynecologic oncology, or hematologic oncology. Fellowships provide in-depth training and research opportunities in the chosen specialty and can last 1 to 3 years.

3. What Residency Program Should I Take for Oncology?

After completing an MBBS degree, aspiring oncologists should pursue a residency program in either General Medicine (leading to an MD degree) or General Surgery (leading to an MS degree). This is followed by further specialization in oncology through a DM program in Medical Oncology for medical oncologists or an MCh program in Surgical Oncology for surgical oncologists.

4. Is Oncology a Competitive Specialty?

Yes, oncology is a highly competitive specialty in India, given the increasing demand for cancer care and the limited number of seats available in super-specialty oncology programs. Success in this field requires a strong academic record, high scores in relevant entrance exams, and significant dedication to research and patient care.

5. What is the Difference Between Hematology and Oncology?

Hematology is the study of blood, blood-forming organs, and blood diseases, while oncology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Hematologist-oncologists specialize in treating cancers that originate in the blood cells, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma, as well as other blood disorders. Although there is overlap, especially in treating blood cancers, the scopes of practice for pure hematologists and oncologists can differ based on the conditions they treat.

6. When Should I Begin Planning for an Oncology Career?

Aspiring oncologists should begin planning their career path early during their MBBS degree by focusing on developing a strong foundation in medical sciences, participating in oncology-related research projects, and seeking mentorship from established oncologists. Early planning and exposure to the field can provide a competitive edge for residency and super-specialty program applications.

7. How Hard Is It to Become an Oncologist?

Becoming an oncologist is challenging due to the rigorous and lengthy educational requirements, the emotional and physical demands of the profession, and the competitive nature of specialty and super-specialty programs. However, with dedication, resilience, and a passion for cancer care, aspiring oncologists can achieve their career goals and make a significant impact in the field.

8. What Does an Oncologist Do?

An oncologist diagnoses and treats cancer using a variety of modalities such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. They also provide palliative care, conduct research to improve cancer treatments, and educate patients and their families about diagnosis, treatment options, and prognoses.

9. What Type of Oncologist Gets Paid the Most?

Salaries for oncologists can vary widely based on their specialization, location, and type of practice. Generally, surgical oncologists tend to earn higher salaries due to the technical skill and complexity involved in cancer surgeries. However, medical and radiation oncologists also command significant incomes, especially with experience and in private practice settings.


In conclusion, becoming an oncologist in India is a pathway marked by dedication, rigorous education, and a deep commitment to combating cancer.

It begins with a foundational MBBS degree, followed by specialized training in oncology through MD, MS, DM, or MCh programs, and potentially further honed by fellowships in sub-specialties.

The journey is challenging, given the competitive nature of entrance exams, the intensive nature of the curriculum, and the emotional demands of oncology practice.

However, it is equally rewarding, offering the chance to make significant contributions to patient care, advance medical knowledge through research, and participate in the ongoing fight against cancer.

Oncologists play a pivotal role in improving cancer outcomes, making this career path both noble and fulfilling.

With evolving treatments and research, oncologists continue to be at the forefront of medical science, pushing the boundaries of what’s possible in cancer care and treatment.

Educational Resources

  1. Medical Council of India (MCI): The official website provides information on recognized medical colleges in India, curriculum standards, and licensing requirements. (
  2. National Board of Examinations (NBE): Offers details on postgraduate exams like NEET-PG, NEET-SS for super specialty courses, including eligibility criteria and application processes. (
  3. Indian Medical Association (IMA): Offers resources, continuing medical education (CME) opportunities, and updates on medical ethics and policies. (

Entrance Exam Preparation

  1. Allen Career Institute: Known for its medical entrance exam coaching, providing NEET-UG and NEET-PG preparation courses. (
  2. Aakash Institute: Offers comprehensive coaching for medical entrance exams, including NEET-UG, with a focus on foundational knowledge and test strategies. (

Online Learning Platforms

  1. Coursera & edX: Provide access to courses related to medical sciences, research methodologies, and specialized topics in oncology from top universities worldwide.
  2. Medscape: A resource for medical news, clinical trial updates, and continuing education in various medical fields, including oncology. (

Professional Organizations and Journals

  1. Indian Society of Medical and Paediatric Oncology (ISMPO): Offers resources for oncology professionals, including conferences, journals, and networking opportunities. (
  2. Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology: A peer-reviewed journal publishing research and review articles in the field of oncology. (

Government Health Resources

  1. National Cancer Institute (NCI) India: Provides information on cancer research, statistics, and patient care initiatives in India.

Meet Ankit Kumar holding a master's degree in Museology, Ankit Kumar brings a profound understanding of the cultural and historical significance of museums. With a passion for research and a keen interest in writing, they have not only excelled in guiding individuals in their career paths but also have a flair for creating insightful and engaging blogs on various aspects of museology as well as different professions.

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